"Expanding Universe Violates Conservation Laws"," Wherein the further away a galaxy was located the greater was the red-shifting of its light; indicating a greater recessionary velocity.
This theory is now widely accepted and even considered by most scientists to be proven.
The mathematics of one theory allows us to relate the principles of that theory with the fundamental principles underlying other physical theories.
Universe expansion, at cosmological distances, has consequences that fail to obey a few key principles of our domestic physics; CONSERVATION of energy and CONSERVATION of mass caused by high relative velocity; CONSERVATION of momentum; CONSERVATION of gravitational potential energy.
Whenever a physical system exhibits a potential violation of a conservation law, the error is attributed to the physical system.
The conservation of energy holds up both internally to interactions within each force and to interactions that incorporate energy exchange where more than one of these forces is affecting matter and motion.
The effects of universe expansion on our knowable universe are such that there is no cross over between universe expansion and the central forces to conserve mass or energy.
The expansion of the universe and the increasing velocity of expansion with increasing distance bring about this loss of mass and energy conservation situation.
Whether it is cosmic particles or cosmic rays, as compared to their initial frame of reference; their energy, mass, or momentum will be diminished in any frame of reference in which they are absorbed, according to the velocity transformation equation for a receding reference frame; and in an expanding universe this reduction is irreversible and violates conservation.
Such that any mass that is converted to energy in some rest frame of reference, and that energy is subsequently absorbed and converted back to mass in a receding frame of reference, then that energy is reduced by the relativity transformation factor [the square root of one minus the velocity squared of the receding frame of reference divided by the square of the velocity of light].
At a distance where the velocity of expansion approaches the velocity of light the ability to transfer mass, energy, momentum, etc.
This could be interpreted as another form of entropy, because the increase in disorder that results in a release of energy or mass in one reference frame will not be fully available, in a receding reference frame, to contribute an equivalent increase in the order within that receding reference frame.
Since the mass represented by both the energy of photons and initial velocities of atomic particles is reduced in the recessive motion of universe expansion, red shifts of photons arriving at earth indicate non-conservation of energy and non-conservation of the mass represented by that energy.
If velocity-energy is diminished by the increasing cosmological distance of universe expansion, then the gravity that is represented by receding mass-velocity-energy is also diminished by cosmological distance, relative to the velocity of expansion for any declared cosmological distance.
This may account for some of the dark matter and dark energy thought necessary to make the universe behave in the manner that we measure.
Is the entire mass of the universe (knowable and unknowable) acting upon all parts uniformly? Or is there a gravitational disconnect for distant and receding matter, that make gravity subject to velocity transformation equations of relativity?
This phenomenon begs the question, when we accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, are they gaining mass consistent with the energy expended to cause acceleration or is their increased velocity relative to the force applied a recessionary velocity where the force is increasingly ineffective at adding additional energy and momentum to the particle?
We know that there is no absolute reference frame and that we currently measure red-shifts and blue-shifts of photon energy coming from different sources.
Every Particle's local reference frame is the proper frame to measure the energy (additional motion) it receives from outside sources.
From the reference frame of the receding particle, the expanding universe does not look like a place to gain additional energy and mass, only a place in which to lose energy and mass.
Consider a large plain on the Earth, with yourself in a ""Bumper Car"".
If you simply sit in your carriage on this plain, horses will bump into you from all directions giving you random changes in velocity and momentum.
As your car increases in velocity relative to the plain, it decreases in velocity relative to the horses.
For masses colliding with other masses this analogy works directly, and Physics has always recognized this.
It is the case that your bumper car and the horses are approaching a state of rest relative to each other; i.
, a state of zero potential energy difference between the bumper car and the horses.
Mass does not increase in a moving frame of reference according to calculations made relative to the frame of reference in which energy is released, but rather according to calculations that include the transformation equations of relative motion of the frame of reference in which energy is absorbed, i.
, the locality of absorption.
Unless all reference frames eventually associate into one rest frame of reference, the Law of Conservation of Energy is invalid on a universe scale.
The Principle of Locality both defines and is additionally expressed in the concept of reference frame Entropy, which is caused by the relative motion of our expanding universe.
The important distinction with respect to a receding mass is that the transformation component [the square root of one minus the velocity of recession squared divided by the velocity of light squared], which appears in the denominator in conventional physics to describe the mass-energy that is created in the Rest reference frame, is in the numerator here to measure the mass-energy that is absorbed in the receding reference frame.
While in my interpretation it simply means that less and less energy is being converted into mass that is moving, as its own frame of reference, at a greater and greater velocity with respect to the defined Rest frame of reference.
Since the conversion of mass to energy and back again is done through the creation and absorption of Electro-Magnetic photons, it is necessary to measure their energy relative to the frame of reference in which they are produced and then transform that energy relative to the frame of reference in which they are absorbed.
The ramifications of an expanding universe, combined with the reduced energy absorption in receding reference frames, demonstrates that when mass is converted into electro-magnetic radiation in one reference frame it progresses toward the outer reaches of its universe with the prospect that it will never be absorbed in a manner that again becomes mass, or it will be absorbed by some receding matter such that its contribution as mass is forever reduced with respect to its previous history by the receding velocity of the absorbing frame of reference.
The accelerating expansion of the universe is actually accelerating the increase in the entropy of the universe.
Universe expansion must also violate the universe speed limit of 300,000 km/second.
The initial mass and velocity allow us to predict future positions and velocities and directions relative to other masses as well as our Laboratory frame of reference.
But if we fire an electron into space at 99.
Universe expansion (actually accelerating expansion) will carry our electron well beyond the velocity of light relative to the earth frame of reference that fired it into space.
It also means that the electron is beyond any influence or connection with the earth; sort of a different type of event horizon.
Universe expansion causes a communication and interaction disconnect for both masses and photons at cosmological distances.
Contrastingly, for any galaxy at cosmological distances and in the path of those same photons, that same light will be red-shifted to lower frequency and energy than they had upon leaving earth, due to the same universe expansion.
It is interesting that a spaceship traveling into inter-galactic space would have to consider how far, how fast, and how long it would coast, as it traveled from its home galaxy; if it intended to return some day.
Spaceships aside, a great deal of the mass and energy of stars is leaving their native galaxies and will achieve cosmological distances, such that this mass and energy will fail to become part of any organized mass structure again; it is simply receding from measurable and interactive existence due to universe expansion.
This very definition is however a verification that the velocity of separation of any two bodies is increasing (changing) with distance.
Obviously, if an object at a distance of one mega-parsec is receding at a velocity of 60 kilometers per second, and after a period of time it has receded to two mega-parsec distance and is measured to be receding at 120 kilometers per second, something (even this continuous creation of space) is accelerating that object away from us.
26 million light years distance.
26 million light years as a distance scale is equivalent to 3.
26 million years; or 60km/sec/3.
Since gravity diminishes with increased distance and the Hubble Constant portends accelerated universe expansion, then universe expansion must be a force working against gravity.
Since the change of velocity is 60 km/sec/3.
00000000000058 km/sec/sec acceleration due to universe expansion.
In this case then, since two objects at cosmological distances would not receive light from each other that had been red-shifted; it should in fact have no frequency shift unless there is validity in the tired-light hypothesis.
Increasing distance is a consequence of that acceleration, caused by velocities that are ever increasing as expansion continues.
If we sent a probe out into space to a cosmological distance, say 168 million light years distant, equal to a Hubble velocity of 10% the velocity of light and then had the probe move toward earth with that same velocity of 10% the velocity of light to negate universe expansion such that the probe would then be stationary relative to earth; then any matter from earth directed at the probe would have its velocity increased by 10% the velocity of light for an observer located at the probe; such that electrons departing earth at 99.
0999% the velocity of light as provided by universe expansion for that distance.
99% of the velocity of light with a higher mass to explain the higher energy transfer.
The convention is to limit velocity and increase mass, or frequency in non-mass photons, to satisfy the physical and mathematical requirements; but such conventions limit our understanding because they constrain our interpretations of phenomena to conventions that do not apply to universe expansion.
The Hubble constant or velocity of universe expansion, at 60km/sec/megaparsec, is not the same type of velocity we measure in central force collisions or inter-actions.
It is a separate velocity component for cosmological distant matter that is unbounded; such that at a specific distance all matter is receding at the velocity of light, and beyond that distance all matter is receding at a velocity greater than the velocity of light; because universe expansion is creating sufficient space between ourselves and such matter that the interpreted velocity can increase unbounded, and certainly become greater than the velocity of light.
While for a galaxy at a distance of ten mega-parsecs two snapshots taken one second apart will originate from two positions of that galaxy, with the second being 600 km further away.
3 billion light years; at this point no light reaches us to inform us of the activities, or even existence of galaxies, beyond this distance.
3 billion light years.
Since the Hubble expansion is a simple property of velocity increase over distance it is not subject to the requirements of relativity, such that galaxies at a distance of 10,000 mega-parsecs would be moving away at twice the velocity of light.
Besides the reduction in gravity due to the expansion of space, we must also consider that there is a significant reduction in gravity on an inter-galactic scale because of mass loss in stars.
The majority of this mass loss will be ejected mass, moving with extra-galactic velocities, such that it will become inter-galactic and be subject to the effects of universe expansion; eventually receding from all other mass well above the velocity of light.
Universe expansion, by increasing the distance between masses, as well as increasing the velocities of separation of masses, will decrease the effect of gravity of any mass on any other mass at cosmological distances.
Either the force of gravity would concentrate mass and thereby increase the effect of gravity over the force of universe expansion, over time, to collapse the universe, or the force of universe expansion would separate mass to dilute the gravitational force, allowing universe expansion to accelerate; which now appears to be the case.
The difficulty of all matter and energy located in an infinitesimal singularity is the problem of motion.
Even if central forces are not present in the singularity, the motion that they have controlled or will control must be present in the singularity; it cannot disappear or originate from nothing.
It is one thing to compress all matter to a single infinitesimal point, since it is still considered to exist as matter at that point; and quite another thing to compress all of matter's momentum into that same point.
So, for mass to expand from a singularity in a big bang scenario we are forced to consider that momentum would be created out of nothing; leaving us to ask, how or by whom is this momentum being created?
The violations of these fundamental conservation laws of physics certainly are unintended consequences, but they are also inescapable consequences of universe expansion.