"A New Theory of Solar System Formation"," At the center, a massive star was companion to a more ordinary Sun.
At an early stage in this evolutionary history, the large inner star erupted into a supernova, powerful enough to completely destroy the star, leaving only an iron core.
From the resulting nebular material released into space by the supernova event, dense, rocky planets began to form in the inner areas of the system.
In the outer regions of the system, gas giant planets had formed from a nebula of gas and dust.
The outermost star had been gravitationally affected by the explosion and loss of mass of one inner star.
At some point on its' wayward journey, this outermost star drew its' closest planet into a more eccentric orbit, out of the plane of the other planets.
This water later condensed to form a cloud of comets on the outer fringes of the system.
As it drew ever closer to the remaining inner Sun, this wandering star passed close enough to one of the inner planets to also draw away most of its water.
Another adverse effect on the affected planet was to cause one hemispheric surface to become molten for a time due to extreme heating from this close encounter.
This catastrophic event caused the formation of a large Moon and caused an extensive period of volcanism, due to intense heating of the core material; a process that continues to this day.
Evolution of The Solar System
A basic process, the shining of stars, accompanies the formation of elements in the interior of stars.
The theory presented here is that stars existing in pairs can create an environment suitable for planet formation by means of a supernova undergone by the larger star, and then condensation of the remnant material into a nebula, from which planets can be formed around the remaining Sun.
Alpha-Centauri, a nearby star system, consists of three stars, an inner binary circled by another star residing in its' outer regions.
Specifically, there is a massive star circling a pair of stars at the center of the system.
From this basic consideration, we can attempt to further develop a new theory of Solar System formation.
The information presented here will be an attempt to consider the evolution of the Solar System from the nebula formed by a nearby supernova.
The supernova may have caused some of the former stars' mass to be lost in space, but much of the material from the supernova would condense into proto-planets and form orbits around the remaining Sun, with a large amount of angular momentum resulting from the force of the supernova.
Some of this remnant material would be moving in all directions around the former star and the Sun, with the process of collision continuing with the main remnant, the Sun and the planets, as they were being formed.
This effect on the rate of rotation of the inner planets should be greater, and this is shown by comparison of the values for these planets with the gaseous outer planets, which rotate faster.
The intensely heated area around the main remnant and the Sun would have given way to a steadily cooler environment, until, at the outermost reaches of the remnant, material captured by the gravity of the outermost star would have cooled enough to allow the condensation of water and ices onto the still-forming outer planets.
If it consisted largely of water, and had a close encounter with the outermost star, this might explain how all of its water was lost, possibly to be condensed onto other planets, and even help to form the cloud of comets.
The Earth, being of a more suitable larger size, retained most of the material colliding with it, and formed an atmosphere, resulting in the formation of conditions suitable for the development of life.
In order to determine the location of the Suns' companion at a time, both before and after the supernova occurred, we have to consider a closer relationship that must have existed between the companion star and the planets as they were being formed We will do this in two parts, considering the inner and outer planets as two distinct groups, forming at different stages in the evolution of the Solar System.
This consideration seems to have similarities to conditions being considered here, in regard to the processes that formed the inner planets.
The Lagrangian theory of planet formation between two massive bodies in close proximity is being considered for both the inner and outer groups of planets.
Otherwise, the material in the asteroid belt would have formed another planet in this area.
The outer planets could have been formed from a nebula of dust and gas present during an early period in the evolution of our Solar System.
The five planets formed and their proposed locations are as follows.
; Saturn, following the star and in the same orbit.
Neptune, most distant from the Sun, orbiting beyond the outermost star; and Pluto, on the opposite side of the Sun, in the same orbit as the outermost star.
There are five satellites in the innermost group, lying in the same plane as the planets.
The last, outermost, group of satellites lie about twice the distance from Jupiter an the second group of satellites.
These observations suggest that a massive body (the wayward outermost star?,) was in close proximity with Jupiter on its' journey at different periods of time; with the final encounter being movement in an opposite direction to previous encounters with Jupiter.
This occurrence also indicates the outermost star may have been present in these areas during satellite formation around these planets.
The supernova undergone by the largest inner star, companion to our Sun, and the consequent movement of the gravitationally affected outermost star, are believed to be the cause of many of these unique features.
Plutos' slow rate of rotation, similar to that of the Sun; indicating the one-time presence of a massive body in the vicinity of the outer planets.
Plutos' elliptical orbit, out of the plane of the planets, may have been caused by the gravitational influence of the wandering outermost star.
This water could have later re-condensed into the cloud of comets.
These elements are released into space after the supernova, and later to condense onto the surface of nearby planets.
A supporting observation is that the Sun has much less angular momentum, when compared to the planets; as is shown by the fact that the Sun turns only once in 25 days.
The process by which the elements were distributed in the Solar System must favor the observed abundance of elements, up to iron, occurring in meteorites and the crust of the Earth, are known to be formed as the product of core reactions in stars, as they age, and the nature of these reactions change.
From these considerations, it is proposed here that the abundance of elements forming the Solar System originated from a nearby supernova rather than one occurring very far away, The presence of all of the elements occurring on Earth indicate this occurrence of a near-by supernova event.
An alternative observation could be that some of the more abundant elements would be in short supply here on Earth.
The many unique features of our present-day Solar System suggest the possibility that they were caused by a companion star of the Sun; and the presence of a large star in the outer reaches of the Solar System.
The overwhelming abundance of all of the elements present on Earth indicate the occurrence of a nearby supernova.
The rotation rate of Mercury and Venus in phase with Earth, which is being considered here to now occupy the position close to that of the Suns former companion star.
The division of the inner and outer planets into separate groups, with each group of planets having similar characteristics.
Pluto's slow rate of rotation, similar to that of the Sun.
This considerations could be explained by the close proximity of our wandering star to Pluto.
The loss of water once present on the planet could also be considered to be due to the effect of the near-by presence of this outermost star, and thus could be the underlying cause for formation of the comet cloud.
This method of Solar System formation should not be unthinkable because of our existence in a particular region of space.
Considering the spectacular occurrence of a nearby supernova creating a remnant which then evolves, and becomes separated in space and time from this immense force in the universe, should give us more of an appreciation for the existence of the Solar System.
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